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Maturity Model for Liquid Web Architectures

Andrea Gallidabino & Cesare Pautasso
http://www.pautasso.info
cesare.pautasso@usi.ch
@pautasso

Abstract

Whenever a user connects with more that one single device, either sequentially or concurrently, to a liquid Web application, the application adapts to the set of connected devices and it is able to flow seamlessly between them following the user attention. As opposed to traditional centralised architectures, in which the data and logic of the application resides entirely on a Web server, Liquid software needs decentralised or distributed architectures in order to achieve seamless application mobility between clients. By decomposing Web application architectures into layers, following the Model View Controller design pattern, we define a maturity model for Web application architectures evolving from classical solid applications deployed on single devices, to fully liquid applications deployed across multiple Web-enabled devices. The maturity model defines different levels based on where the application layers are deployed and how they migrate or synchronize their state across multiple devices. The goal of the maturity model described in this paper is to understand, control and describe how Web applications following the liquid user experience paradigm are designed and also provide Web developers with a gradual adoption path to evolve existing Web applications.

1 Computer
Many Users

(1950-1970)

1 Computer
1 User

(1980-1990)

Many Computers
1 User

(2000-)

Apple Continuity

Samsung Flow

What about the Web?

Responsive

Liquid

Adapt

Liquid Metaphor

Flow

Liquid Software

  1. Adapt the distributed user interface to fully take advantage of the set of devices
  2. Seamlessly migrate and clone running applications across devices

Minority Report (2002)

How Liquid is the Web?

Web App Architecture

Logic

State

Channel

1

2

3

4

5

Maturity Model

Maturity Model for Liquid Web Applications

Acknowledgements

Daniele Bonetta, Tommi Mikkonen, Antero Taivalsaari, Kari Systä, Andrea Gallidabino, Vasileios Triglianos, Masiar Babazadeh, Yoël Luginbuhl

References

Maturity Model

Maturity Model

Level 1
Web 1.0
Level 2c
Rich Web
Level 3c
Realtime Web
Level 4c
Hybrid Web
Level 5
P2P Web

Logic Ultra-thin Thin Thin Thin Thick

State Centralized Centralized Centralized Centralized Distributed

Channel Pull Pull Push P2P P2P

Flow Migrate/Fork Migrate/Fork Migrate/Fork/Clone Migrate/Fork/Clone Migrate/Fork/Clone

Adapt Static Responsive Complementary Complementary Complementary

Hops 2 2 2 1 or 2 1

Privacy NO NO NO NO YES

Level 1
Web 1.0
Level 2d
Rich Web
Level 3d
Realtime Web
Level 4d
Hybrid Web
Level 5
P2P Web

Logic Ultra-thin Thin Thin Thin Thick

State Centralized Decentralized Decentralized Decentralized Distributed

Channel Pull Pull Push P2P P2P

Flow Migrate/Fork Migrate/Fork Migrate/Fork/Clone Migrate/Fork/Clone Migrate/Fork/Clone

Adapt Static Responsive Complementary Complementary Complementary

Hops 2 2 2 1 or 2 1

Privacy NO NO NO YES* YES

Web 1.0 Rich Web Realtime Web Hybrid Web P2P Web

Logic Ultra-thin Thin Thin Thin Thick

State Centralized
 
Centralized
Decentralized
Centralized
Decentralized
Centralized
Decentralized

Distributed

Channel Pull Pull Push Peer to Peer Peer to Peer

Flow Migrate/Fork Migrate/Fork Migrate/Fork/Clone Migrate/Fork/Clone Migrate/Fork/Clone

Adapt Static Responsive Complementary Complementary Complementary

Hops 2 2 2 1 or 2 1

Privacy NO NO NO YES* YES

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